Intrinsic motivation - the motivation that matters if we want to address the decline in education - has two components to it, curiosity and courage. Curiosity is intrinsic to being human and is evident as soon as a baby can reach out a hand or focus its eyes. Courage only emerges with the adult mind and is the ability to keep going when things get hard or ambiguous or boring. Courage can neither be willed nor argued into existence. It grows and develops through the right forms of attention from the adults around the child. The combination – courage + curiosity – is the foundation for long-term growth into successful adulthood.